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Like any living organism, plants are susceptible to infection by environmental pathogens at all stages of development. The environmental conditions that nurseries must maintain to achieve plant growth coincide with the conditions necessary for pathogen growth and development. Although the chemical treatment of plants after a pathogen has infected its tissues is appropriate, the prevention of that initial pathogen/host interaction is more important to the long-term health and production of nursery plants. Thus, it is essential that nurseries have, in place, a system of prophylactic measures and monitoring that is designed to minimize this interaction. Such a system must be multi-layered and adaptable. By employing multiple prophylactic measures followed by close monitoring and laboratory testing of plants for potential pathogens, a high degree of success can be achieved.
SEMI-SELECTIVE HERBICIDE USE
The use of non-selective knockdowns at ultra-low concentrations to control weeds and to avoid off-target damage in bushland and nursery situations. This presentation is our introduction of this concept to nursery weed control.
A considerable body of science in the use of semi-selective herbicide use has been developed by scientists and practitioners in Western Australia to combat particular environmental weeds in quality bushland.
The intention has been to find effective weed controls using herbicides without off-target damage. This work over many years has led to the development of very successful techniques which may have application to nursery weed control.
Grafting vegetable plants onto specific rootstocks that are resistant to soilborne diseases is a unique horticultural technology attracting interest among intensive vegetable crop producers as well as organic growers in many parts of the world. Grafting often represents the only feasible measure to control a diversity of problems such as soilborne disease and saline soil conditions.
Over the last 10 years, the team at Spring Meadow Nursery has put forth great effort to create a culture amongst our staff that embraces the use of technology, automation and new ideas to innovate and improve many aspects of our production process. The willingness to invest in new technology and automation is the first step towards achieving the goal of increased efficiencies, improved quality, and long-term profitability. Certain considerations and calculations must be made before one decides to invest time or money into a new piece of equipment in any production process.
The 40th Annual Meeting of the International Plant Propagators’ Society-Southern Region of North America convened at 7:30 am at the Sheraton Tampa Riverwalk Hotel, Tampa, Florida with President Maarten van der Giessen presiding.
Grafting can improve vegetable productivity by combining desirable traits from two taxa into one plant. However, the grafting process creates severe wounds. Optimal healing of newly grafted plants requires careful light and temperature management (Lee et al., 2010). Grafted tomato plants are commonly healed in enclosed structures shaded to reduce light levels and moderate temperature (Rivard and Louws, 2006). However, what is the optimal combination of light and temperature conditions for efficient healing of grafted tomato plants is not clear. The hypothesis was that light and temperature affect the healing of grafted tomato seedlings separately and interactively.
Objectives were to (a) test the regrowth of grafted tomato seedlings under four levels of temperature and light intensities; (b) heighten the understanding of effects of key environmental variables on graft healing; (c) optimize conditions and management for grafted plant propagation.
Hostas are perennial herbs native to eastern Asia including Japan, Korea, and China. About 20 species are recorded in Japan now. There are about 12 Hosta species on Shikoku Island. Eleven species are recorded just for Kochi Prefecture, among 13 species on Shikoku Island, including: H. alismifolia (baran-giboushi), H. capitata [syn. H. nakaiana (kanzashi giboushi)], H. sieboldiana var. montana [syn. H. montana (ohba giboushi)], H. sieboldii (koba giboushi), H. longissima (mizu giboushi), H. longipes [syn. H. longipes var. caduca (saikoku iwa giboushi)], H. gracillima [syn. H. longipes var. gracillima (hime iwa giboushi)], H. kikutii var. polyneuron (sudare giboushi), H. kikutii var. caput-avis (unazuki giboushi), H. kikutii var. tosana (tosano giboushi), and H. tardiva (nankai giboushi). Hostas are used as garden plants, materials for flower arrangements, and for vegetables. Hosta plants are known as a vitamin C rich vegetable in Japan with H. tardiva a popular vegetable with slight bitterness in Kochi, Shikoku. However, in Europe and America hostas are used as garden plants with very high popularity for a long time. Philipp F. B. von Siebold introduced Japanese hosta cultivars to Europe at the end of 17th century.
Vitex agnus-castus, also known as the chaste tree, is a plant that is grown for its ornamental qualities such as its delicate-textured, aromatic foliage and spikes of lavender flowers that bloom mid- to late-season and attract butterflies. It is also a plant that deer will not eat. Vitex is a shrub that grows 5 to 15 ft tall with a spread of 15-20 ft and is winter-hardy to USDA Zone 7. The leaf of this deciduous plant is palmately compound, lanceolate shaped with pinnate venation and is bluish-green to green in color (Gilman and Watson, 1994). The Vitex plant was recently applauded by the nursery industry as a useful landscape plant, however, there are breeding opportunities to improve the ornamental value of this plant (Dirr, 2015). Vitex would benefit from additional breeding in order to develop new characteristics such as a more compact growth habit and additional flower colors.
The long-term goal of this research is to breed and improve V. agnus-castus. However, the first part is to understand the seed physiology of this plant. The objective of this research was to determine if there are dormancy requirements for the successful germination of seeds from V. agnus-castus<.I> (Bewley and Black, 1982).
Commercial blueberry cultivars can be propagated by a range of methods including softwood and hardwood stem cuttings and micropropagation. Softwood cuttings are commonly used due to a high rooting percentage and rapid rooting period of 6-8 weeks. Rooting success varies among blueberry cultivars, but this may be due to a number of factors including timing, cultural practices, and inherent genetic rooting potential. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rooting substrate and auxin on softwood cuttings of Vaccinium ‘Jewel’, V. ‘Powderblue’, V. ‘Tifblue’, and V. corymbosum ‘Hodnett’.
It is said "necessity is the mother of all invention," and for our company this is very true. Although we didn’t invent anything, certain economic situations made it necessary for us to reinvent our production methods. The economic slowdown that started in late 2008 and dragged out for many years set a new course for Decker’s Nursery that we are still traveling. This is the journey we took to mechanize our company.
To better understand the journey, it will help to understand our company. Decker’s Nursery was founded in 1921 by Paul Offenberg. He was a professionally trained Horticulturalist from Holland who immigrated here and used his skills to start Paul Offenburg Nursery. Through hard work and a lot of effort, the nursery grew, relocated a couple of times and reorganized into the company that is Decker’s Nursery today. The Nursery focuses on propagation and wholesale nursery production
Trees are an important and very valuable component of our urban landscapes. In a civic sense, they:
- Help reduce air temperatures
- Reduce electricity consumption (which in turn reduces the use of coal and demands on water)
- Sequester carbon
- Prolong the life of asphalt
- Improve the amenity value of our streets
- Help reduce storm-water runoff and much more.
On a more personal level, trees can improve our streets, enhance the quality of life we enjoy in our houses and gardens and add significantly to the value of our homes. When you look at the cost of the tree itself, the percentage of the total costs of planting is very small while the return on investment is huge.
Botanical gardens are much about colourful display and arboreal grandeur. Until relatively recently, though, most botanical gardens were largely collections of exotic plants arranged for the pleasure of the public — not unlike the zoos of the past. In other words, exotic eye candy to entertain the customer and not so much about conservation. University-based botanical gardens have always provided special gardens and research collections for the education of experts, but these were mostly inaccessible. Essentially, the typical garden visitor would have no clue as to the value of the plants beyond any intrinsic beauty or other esthetic appeal they might have. It’s worth noting that the earliest European botanical gardens were cloistered herb gardens administered by Latin-speaking monks. The walls and yew hedges surrounding them were meant to keep the knowledge in and the riff-raff out. Such academic traditions have been broken — although not always completely — the various kinds of interpretive signage common in modern botanical gardens being an indicator of the newfound willingness to communicate with the public.
The University of Kentucky (UK) Native Plants Program at the UK Research and Education Center in Princeton, Kentucky was started when a stunning plant, Spigelia marilandica, of native provenance was found to be relatively easy to propagate in spite of being described in literature as difficult to propagate. The program has been continued in support of the Kentucky native plant production economics (Ingram et al., 2015) that indicate there has been an increase in native plant production since 2003.
Propagating Kentucky native plants from known provenances has been investigated. This presentation will discuss the successes and those yet to be successfully propagated. The propagation methods were to increase numbers of plants of a given provenance for distribution and landscape evaluation; therefore, they may not be efficient production protocols.
Pomegranate (Punica granatum) cultivars from the USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, California were evaluated for propagation success and early plant growth. Twelve cultivars: ‘Ki Zakuro’, ‘Phoenecia’, ‘Nochi Shibori’, ‘Golden Globe’, ‘Green Globe’, ‘Loffani’, ‘Wonderful’, ‘Eversweet’, ‘Haku Botan’, ‘Parfianka’, ‘Desertnyi’, and ‘Ambrosia’ were included in the trial. Stem cuttings were harvested from basal suckers, cut to a length of 10.5±1.0 cm long and treated with 3 g L-1 of indolebutyric acid and planted in a Sunshine potting mix and perlite (1:1, v/v) medium in 2.5×2.5-cm potting containers, separated by block in plastic flats irrigated with deionized water.
Micropropagation has become a successful technique for fruit and nut tree rootstocks. However, success of a laboratory to produce a high rate of healthy shoots during multiplication stage depends on its ability to maintain cultures free from contamination. Although, all labs can easily start a clean culture from an explant, many labs report a flare-up of bacterial contamination after a few cycles of multiplication despite using their best laboratory practices. This flare-up is often blamed on endogenous bacteria within the micro shoots. This assumes that such bacteria were always present in the shoots, but were in quiescent stage and/or were non-culturable and suddenly they became active and grew on culture media. Such theory is believable since presence of endogenous bacteria in plants is well-known in the literature and only 1% of bacteria are culturable. To overcome this challenge of flare-up of contamination (endogenous or introduced), a laboratory should have a protocol in place to index their stock materials on a regular basis. For culturable bacteria, contamination can be detected by culturing samples of tissue in a nutrient broth for bacteria. For non-culturable bacteria, sections of stems can be eluted in water and the eluate observed under the microscope for bacteria. Bacteria-specific PCR tests are now available and are helpful. These procedures along with shoot tip cultures, occasional use of antibiotic and close visual observation have proved successful at Micro Paradox in maintaining our nuclear stock of walnuts, pistachio, and peach × almond hybrids free from contamination.
Weigela are among the most popular flowering shrubs for temperate landscapes as they tolerate a wide range of cultural conditions, propagate easily from cuttings, and flower heavily in late spring. The genus is composed of 10 species native to China, Japan, Manchuria, and the Korean peninsula. Since the genus was brought to western horticulture near 1860, over two hundred cultivars have been introduced (Dirr, 2009; Sheffield Botanical Gardens, 2015). Introductions continue today with breeding work emphasizing the development of compact plants, novel foliage colors, and recurrent blooming characteristics. One cultivar, ‘Courtalor’, Carnaval® weigela is widely promoted as a reblooming polyploid (Pantin, 2015; Wood, n.d.). Because polyploidy may be associated with ornamental characteristics that breeders may be selecting for, such as reblooming, we set out to investigate the presence of polyploidy in natural populations and extent of polyploidy in available cultivars. This manuscript reports genome size and ploidy estimations for 10 species and 46 cultivars, from a total of 74 accessions.
Seventeen selections became All-America Selections (AAS) National Award Winners for 2015. AAS includes a network of over 80 trial grounds all over North America where new, never-before-sold cultivars are "Tested Nationally and Proven Locally®" by skilled, impartial AAS Judges. Only the best performers are declared AAS Winners. Once these new cultivars are announced as AAS Winners, they are available for immediate sale and distribution.
An additional eight cultivars were selected as All-America Selections (AAS) Regional Award Winners for 2015. Regional winners undergo the same trialing process as national winners, but are recognized as cultivars that exhibit outstanding performance in specific regional climates.
The use of grafted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) transplants is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative strategy to manage soilborne disease in the USA. The inherent challenges and costs of producing grafted watermelon transplants include: additional greenhouse space that is needed to grow the rootstock and to graft the plants; extra labor that is needed to perform the grafting; and special facilities that are required for the proper healing and acclimation of the grafted seedlings. These facilities range from relatively inexpensive modified greenhouses to state-of-the-art climate-controlled growth chambers. The objectives of this study were to provide a general guide for evaluating the feasibility of growing grafted greenhouse seedless watermelon transplants, and using grafted transplants to produce seedless watermelon in Washington State.
There are approximately 23 species of Hydrangea but only five are widely grown in the USA. Hydrangea macrophylla, H. quercifolia and to a lesser extent, H. paniculata are well adapted to East Texas. While H. arborescens, H. aspera, and H. petiolaris survive, but are not well adapted. The hydrangea collection at Stephen F. Austin (SFA) Gardens dates back to the first Arboretum plantings in 1986, but only with the construction of the Ruby Mize Azalea Garden (1997) and Gayla Mize Garden (2011) did the collection expand to its present size. The most current inventory for the hydrangea collection can be found on the SFA Gardens website in three theme garden webpages (http://sfagardens.sfasu.edu): (1) Mast Arboretum (46 cultivars), (2) Ruby Mize Azalea Garden (232 cultivars), and (3) Gayla Mize Garden (39 cultivars). While there is some duplication of cultivars and the most recent plantings have yet to be added to the website database, the collection remains the most extensive in the southern USA.
Grafting vegetable plants onto specific rootstocks which are resistant to soilborne diseases is a unique horticultural technology attracting interest among intensive vegetable crop producers as well as organic growers. In many parts of the world including the USA grafting represents the only feasible measure to control a diversity of problems such as soilborne disease and saline soil conditions. Cucurbit plants, particularly watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), are grafted using the one cotyledon method. The optimal stage of growth for grafting watermelon is the 1 to 2 true-leaf stage for the scion and the 1 true leaf stage for the rootstock. A 9-day healing regimen was found to be successful for watermelon in western Washington conditions and had 90% survival for grafted watermelon transplants. Our current research studies are investigating how to further optimize the success rate for grafting watermelon transplants, such as applying antitranspirants to reduce water loss and utilizing the splice grafting method to eliminate rootstock regrowth. Additionally we are testing grafted plants to control verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae in Washington.
Primula × polyantha hort. selections are important pot flowering plants in Japan, however, homogeneous seed production is difficult on account of cross-fertilization (allogamous) plant. On the other hand, commercial vegetative propagation is also not possible because of low reproduction rates. Micropropagation is also difficult. In shoot apex culture, contamination occurs frequently because the shoot apexes occur close to the surface level of the soil.
In primulas, adventitious shoots were obtained by the flower-bud culture. We tried flower-bud culture, using P. veris L., P. vulgaris Hudson, and P. juliae Kusnetsow and obtained a few adventitious shoots from only P. vulgaris and P. juliae (Matsumoto and Ohashi, 2014).
In primulas, the inflorescence is the only elongated stem and those are an indefinite inflorescence; there is an apical meristem in the apex. Actually, a bud is formed on the tip of the inflorescence after flowering, in primulas such as P. malacoides franchet, Bull., P. obconica Hance, P. sinensis Sabine ex Lindley, and P. modesta Bisset & Moore.
In the present study, we tried in vitro shoots formation by inflorescence apex culture of P. × polyantha.
This paper is designed to be an introduction to a discussion that will take place at this meeting between people involved with natural areas management and conservation and those doing plant propagation, plant breeding-introduction, and nursery stock production. Various papers will be presented after this one, all providing information and research results as food for the discussion.
The issue of invasive plant species has become a prominent one in the last 15 years. Invasive plants are causing destruction of natural ecosystems in many unmanaged land tracts. The amount of money spent by natural areas managers to control invasives has become a major part of their budgets. Many but not all of the plant species which have been identified as invasive originated from the ornamental plant industry. Because the industry has been a major incubator of new invasive plant species, most efforts to control the expansion of more invasive plant species have been centered on preventing new ones from entering from the industry. Many states have enacted regulations to control the sale and possession of various invasive species, while some others have instituted voluntary invasive plant control measures in cooperation with their green industries. Some states have little to nothing formally in place to deal with the problem. Federal regulations of invasive plants presently in the country are minimal at this time.
Many California consumers and government agency regulators increasingly demand agricultural products produced with less, or without, use of synthetic chemical pesticides. As a prime example, soil fumigation with synthetic chemical toxicants now is seen as having decreasing compatibility with public safety and environmental quality. Alternatives are being developed and such methods must be shown to be effective, predictable, and economically viable. Active heat-based treatments are attractive options for soil disinfestation and certain elements of the biogeochemical environment, such as accumulation of passive solar energy and knowledge-based utilization of organic materials and byproducts, may be harnessed to provide economic pest management. Recent research and implementation projects on alternatives including biosolarization, biofumigation, and anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) will be discussed.
Rain garden systems are one of the most commonly utilized stormwater control measures (SCMs) to capture and remove pollutants [such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and total suspended solids (TSS) ] from stormwater runoff (Davis et al., 2001, 2009; Hunt et al., 2012). They are constructed by excavating the existing soil within the landscape and refilled with 0.7-1 m of a sand/soil/organic matter engineered filter bed substrate (Davis et al., 2009). They are then planted with vegetation (Liu et al., 2014; NCDENR, 2009). Rain gardens can be placed in many different landscape scenarios. They function well for containing and remediating polluted stormwater runoff because of their two main components: (1) the engineered filter bed substrate (EFBS) and (2) the vegetation.
It has become very obvious that many of the selections of hedge plants introduced to New Zealand have become environmental disasters. Examples of this include gorse (Ulex europaeus), privet (Ligustrum spp. ), Acmena spp. (lillypilly), and Berberis spp. to name a few.
Others such as Buxus spp. have a dreadful smell and are susceptible to rust while various species and cultivars of conifers are susceptible to fungal diseases resulting in large areas of die back. It appears that this is spread by hedge trimmers while poor pruning methods are also to blame.
NEW ZEALAND NATIVES
With this in mind, we have been planting New Zealand native trees and shrubs in various situations to get some idea on how frost and wind hardy they are, how tolerant are they to drought and wet conditions and what is their ultimate size without pruning is.
Franklin Park Conservatory and Botanical Gardens is an architectural landmark, a work of art, a place of discovery. People stroll through the gardens to appreciate beauty and celebrate nature’s diversity. They come to see butterflies and they learn about our world and themselves.
Since 1896, the Franklin Park Conservatory’s Palm House has been a centerpiece of the 88-acre Franklin Park. In the 1990s, after hosting the AmeriFlora ’92 exposition, legislative action conferred ownership of the Conservatory and 28 acres around it to a Board of Trustees.
In the years since, the Conservatory has dedicated itself to the following mission and vision:
- MISSION: inspired by horticulture, Franklin Park Conservatory and Botanical Gardens elevates quality of life and connects the community through educational, cultural and social experiences.
- VISION: to establish a new paradigm for the role, community contribution, and performance of a mission-driven organization.
Chromosome doubling (ploidy manipulation) is a useful tool in ornamental plant breeding. One application is reducing fertility of weedy species. While many studies have compared morphological variability between cytotypes (ploidy levels), we have found none that focused on rooting potential. A plant
Black walnut (BW; Juglans nigra( is an integral component of the Central and Eastern hardwood regions of the United States. Fine hardwood trees such as BW are used to manufacture high-end wood products such as veneer, cabinetry, gunstocks, and furniture, which are traded regionally and globally. Ecologically, BW serves an integral role as a riparian species, as well as providing food and shelter for wildlife. While BW continues to be cultivated commercially, significant effort and resources have been spent selecting for and breeding BW for improved timber characteristics.
As elite BW genotypes were developed it was quickly realized that clonal propagation was difficult. Traditional methods such as grafting requires a high level of skill, is time and labor intensive, has limited rates of success, and the resulting trees are not growing on their own roots, which can have an adverse effect on performance. Softwood cutting propagation is ideal for rapid multiplication of superior genotypes. However, the inability to predictably and reliably produce adventitious roots (AR) remains the greatest impediment to a routine BW propagation protocol. Recalcitrance to AR formation is common in most woody perennials such as BW. Adventitious roots formation is an extremely complex process controlled by many external and genetic stimuli; unfortunately, little is known about the underlying mechanisms controlling AR development.
Past attempts to improve adventitious rootability in BW have had limited success. Such gains were often difficult to reproduce, as rootabilty in BW is highly genotype specific, contributing to the inability to develop an optimized clonal propagation system.
The propagation stage of plant production can be challenging but the quality of the resulting seedling, rooted cutting or young plant is crucial to the performance of the finished crop. In protected horticulture many aspects of the crop environment such as temperature, humidity and irrigation, are carefully controlled to optimise plant performance. However, despite the importance of light to the process, many propagation systems rely on solar radiation which varies through the season and from day to day, resulting in crop variability.
High pressure sodium and other types of high intensity discharge lamps have been used to provide supplemental lighting. While these can improve plant growth they can also result in stretching due to the lack of blue light in their output spectrum. The introduction of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems for horticulture caused great interest due to the potential energy savings compared with traditional lighting systems (LEDs use 25% less electricity than 600W HPS lamps for an equivalent light intensity). However, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests LEDs provide many additional benefits beyond simple energy saving that may have a greater impact on crop production, for example by being able to "tailor" the output light wavelength to meet specific crop management requirements.
The balloon vine (Cardiospermum halicacabum) is a popular plant with balloonlike fruits, but there are no cultivars. Polyploidization could be used to breed new cultivars. Here, we tried to breed polyploid balloon vines for improved horticultural value. Polyploidization was induced by immersing germinated seeds in colchicine solution. The frequency of tetraploids depended on concentration and treatment time. No tetraploids were obtained from seedlings treated at 1 mM. Some tetraploids were obtained from seedlings treated at 10 mM for 24, 36, or 48 h. All were diploid
Since 1984, Akatsuka Garden Company has focused on the behavior of certain ions, especially the iron ions in water, and interactions of water molecules with them. We have continued research on various solutions to not only accelerate plant growth, but also activate physiological functions of plants. Based on this research, we have developed FFC materials such as "FFC-Ceramics" (for water improvement), "FFC-Ace©" (for soil improvement), and others.
In addition, many agricultural producers in Japan have been utilizing FFC materials to rejuvenate plants and increase profits. Those producers have also explored many other possible methods of using FFC materials and consequently found good ways that benefit their actual production sites.
In the first few weeks of bedding plant production, growers rarely irrigate so as to bring the substrate up to container capacity (the point at which the substrate can hold no more water against gravity). Research has been carried out to determine effects of substrate water content on bedding plant growth. Van Iersel et al. (2010) determined effects of substrate water content on petunia (Petunia × hybrida). The substrate was maintained at or above substrate volumetric water contents (VWC; cm3 water cm-3 substrate) of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40%. Shoot dry weight increased quadratically with VWC. There was a little increase in shoot dry weight between 25 and 40% VWC. All plants were well-watered uniformly for the first 9 days after being transplanted into the containers, and it took 9 days after irrigation treatment initiation for the substrate to reach the 5% VWC target. The substrate water content maintained during the first 9 days is not reported. Furthermore, substrate water content at container capacity was not reported. Therefore, it is not known how 40% VWC (the wettest treatment) compares to container capacity in the substrate and container used in the study.
The fall can be a great time to take a step back from the pressures of the growing season and to reflect on the year. The plants are dormant, pressure to water constantly has been reduced substantially and the extreme cold weather that will be coming has yet to arrive; time to take a deep breath. But any sense of tranquility soon disappears when the realities of winter and what it can bring comes forward. Prides Corner Farms (PCF) goes to great lengths to ensure that our nursery stock is adequately protected. And it does not stop with winter protection. Our plants are under assault throughout the year from events created by Mother Nature. Talking about the weather is not enough. Preparing for what she dishes out is important. Let’s start.
The objectives of the study were to cultivate and breed Trifolium repens, grow and micropropagate various species of Trifolium, and develop protocols for the genetic manipulation of T. repens in vitro. Because white clover is a self-sterile hermaphrodite, cross-pollination is necessary to create viable seed from genetically different parents. As a result of exposing T. repens to 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in vitro, adventitious shoot formation was initiated and it was observed that a concentration of 1 mg L-1 BAP is optimal for adventitious shoot initiation. Other species of Trifolium responded similarly to that of T. repens while cultivated in vitro. Colchicine and Surflan® (chemical mutagens) were used successfully to produce mutations in T. repens. The plants exposed to these mutagens demonstrated physical mutations such as an increase in leaflets per clover and thicker petiole tissue. This research provides evidence that plant tissue culture can be used to micropropagate endangered Trifolium species and chemically induced mutations which resulted from this study.
Ornithogalum candicans [syn. Galtonia candicans (Decne. )] (Baker) J.C. Manning & Goldblatt, cape hyacinth, is a white flowering bulbous species native to South Africa. The large, white flowers attract a diverse set of pollinators providing pollen and nectar throughout the growing season. While it blooms profusely from early June until frost in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, there has been only one cultivar, ‘Moonbeam’ (Hammett and Murray, 1993), introduced to the market. Typically, the species is seed-propagated for sale in nurseries. One issue that has been noted is the tendency for cape hyacinth to lodge once 4-5 ft — tall inflorescences are in full flower and begin to fruit (Armitage, 2008). Additionally, the plant is too large to containerize and fit onto a nursery shipping cart when in flower. Another concern is the potential for weediness.
This article summarizes PRE Model Research, published by PLOS ONE, March 2015, and led by C. Conser1, L. Seebacher2, D.W. Fujino3, S. Reichard4, J.M. DiTomaso1 (1Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA; 2Washington State Department of Ecology, Lacey, Washington, USA; 3University of California, Davis, Center for Urban Horticulture, Davis, California, USA; 4University of Washington Botanic Gardens, Seattle, Washington, USA).
The nursery and landscape industry has introduced over 50,000 ornamental species in the United States (Gordon and Gantz, 2008). The total number of cultivars introduced increased from 29,000 in 1987 to 105,000 in 2008 (Levine and D’Antonio, 2003). Most of these species and cultivars do not cause environmental or economic problems. In fact, only a small percentage (between 0.1 and 1%) has become invasive.
If ever asked, "Why should we appreciate plants and nature?" I can quickly and without hesitation reply, "All life depends on plants. Without the world’s flora, life as we know it would not exist." But I have known many others, my friends and colleagues in commercial nurseries and other related professions, who know plants primarily as the source of their livelihood. In growing plants for sale, these people contribute significantly to the global economy and provide well for their families and others.
Are these in fact competing value systems or are they two sides of the same coin, where plant diversity — both wild and cultivated — contributes to our quality of life? I believe that in exploring this question, we can come to a greater understanding of why plants matter and better learn how we can work together for a better tomorrow.
For me, I think, I’ve believed in the value and importance of plants and nature for nearly all of my life, or at least it seems that way. Perhaps this understanding was a serendipitous result of being born in the 1970s, raised in a middle-class family in rural Ohio, steeped in educational television shows like Wild Kingdom and Nature, and influenced by a number of well-meaning teachers along the way, including my mother, an avid gardener. And if this were not enough, I grew up in a time when environmental concerns were increasingly in the public eye.
The nursery industry is transitioning away from standard plastic containers in attempts to reduce production costs and use of petroleum-based products and to improve plant health, root architecture, and transplant success. This study evaluated the effect of four root-pruning containers: Air-Pots®, Light PotsTM, Root Pouch Pots, and Smart Pots on plant biomass, root architecture, and medium temperature, relative to standard plastic containers. Two deciduous woody shrubs were used: Amelanchier × grandiflora ‘Cole’s Select’ and Rhus aromatica ‘Gro Low’, with six replicates of each container/species combination randomized in a complete-block design. All four root-pruning containers promoted root branching that limited circling and produced more fine roots than the standard plastic containers.
Some popular landscape plants have proven over time to exhibit invasive tendencies. The realization that these plants are invasive has led to legal bans of known invasive ornamental species in some states. For example, Berberis thunbergii and Euonymus alatus have been illegal to grow, sell, and transport since 2004 in New Hampshire and since 2009 in Massachusetts. In 2013, New York began a legal phasing out of Berberis and Euonymus, and Minnesota and Wisconsin have initiated partial bans on the most fecund Japanese barberry cultivars.
Many of the characteristics that make plants invasive, also make them good landscape plants. Invasive plants are typically tough adaptable plants that perform at a high level in managed landscapes. In addition, they often are highly ornamental and some are unpalatable to deer, making them even more useful in regions where deer populations have exploded. Use of native species or non-invasive exotic species as alternatives to invasive species has had some success. However, there are some invasive species for which it is hard to find replacement plants that provide the same set of ornamental characteristics and landscape performance traits that are delivered by the invasive plant. For these hard to replace invasive species, there is considerable interest in the development of sterile forms of these plants. Gagliardi and Brand (2007) found that the green industry strongly supported
Many nursery growers have been conducting on-farm research trials for years, either independently in order to improve upon current production practices, or in cooperation with university, government or industry entities. By conducting research trials to answer specific questions, growers are able to develop real-world solutions based upon their specific needs at their location. Conducting a research trial in addition to managing normal nursery activities could seem like a daunting task. However, research trials can be designed and specifically tailored to meet a grower’s needs in terms of time commitment, resources, space, or any other constraint.
The objectives of this paper are to outline the benefits of conducting on farm research, provide an overview of how to properly design research trials, and illustrate how to draw meaningful conclusions from research results.
Underutilization of used potting media for crop production in environmental horticulture wastes money and resources. In conversations with growers, it is estimated that about 10% of plants with potting media are culled and disposed of in the industry. Many nurseries dump culled plants and media on site and this waste is generally not reused. In an effort to recycle this waste, a series of methods were tested to solarize the used potting media. Solarization is a sustainable, inexpensive, and effective method to reduce pathogens, nematodes, and weeds. Solarization works using the light energy of the sun and transforming it into heat. When temperatures reach a certain threshold over a certain critical time, pests can be eliminated. Different pests (i.e., weed seeds, insects, fungi) have different thresholds for being heat killed. Research has shown that if container medium is held at temperatures of 70oC (158oF) or higher for 30 min or 60oC (140oF) or higher for 1 h, solarization can completely eliminate plant pests (Stapleton et al., 2008). Methods have been developed for treating smaller quantities of medium such as in nursery pots on pallets with a "double tent" method (Stapleton, 2000). Research has shown the effective use of solarization to treat small bags of potting soil on benches (Zinati et al., 2002). What was lacking was a larger scale method to treat higher quantities of spent potting media.
Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) is a little-known tropical fruit in Japan. Pitaya fruit contains important nutrients to enhance human health, including dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols (Mahattanatawee et al., 2006). The fruit also contains oligosaccharides known to improve the intestinal environment (Wichienchot, 2010). Red pitaya fruit contains betalains, pigments with antioxidant activity that are used as natural dyes and to remove active oxygen species (Wu et al., 2006; Tenore et al., 2012).
The pitaya flower opens at night and wilts the next morning. It resembles the queen of the night flower (Epiphyllum oxypetalum), which is approximately 25-30 cm in length. The queen of the night flower usually blooms 3-4 times a year, whereas the pitaya flower blooms 5-6 times a year, from spring to autumn.
Pitaya plants tolerate temperatures as low as -4oC; thus, they could grow during the winter season in the warmer regions of western Japan (Fumuro et al., 2013). Pitaya requires relatively simple management practices and is expected to increase in popularity.
There is a misconception that native plants, in general, are not that ornamental based on what’s observed in the wild. There is some truth to this but through cultivation, many can become excellent landscape plants. In fact the nursery industry embraces many native plants that under standard nursery practices become excellent ornamentals. Good examples include many mainstream landscape plants. Trees such as Acer saccharum, Amelanchier laevis, Asimina triloba, Cercis canadensis, Cornus florida, Fagus grandifolia, Nyssa sylvatica as well as many species of Quercus. Shrubs including Aronia, Clethra alnifolia, Cornus sericea, Diervilla lonicera and Ilex verticillata are widely available.
Another problem is how we define native. It can be defined in different ways depending on how they will be used.
CHALLENGES IN THE NURSERY INDUSTRY
How will students, newcomers, and the young at heart succeed in the green industry? All that is required is to shift your mindset and proactively solve problems and seize opportunities. I will explain how successful men and women will grow in their careers and businesses in the green industry.
Starting with the major challenges before us — we produce live, green, perishable goods. Some people even think of us as luxury. I am one of them, but "luxury" is not a dirty word. Consider the multi-million dollar pet industry. In 2010, Americans spent $47.7 billion on pet products and services. In 2008, total U.S. sales in the green industry was $176 billion http://horttech.ashspublications.org/content/21/5 /628.full.pdf+html. Yet, we are classified as a maturing industry. The green industry is in a period of hyper competition http://aggiehorticulture.tamu.edu/facult/hall/publications/2010%2008%20Making%20Cents%20of%20Green%20Industry.pdf, and we are in a race to the bottom in the nursery business — competing on price. Academic opportunities and research funding can be scarce.
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that triggers adaptive responses to water stress, including stomatal closure and shoot growth suppression. Our goal is to explore the potential of ABA in improving quality and marketability of vegetable transplants. First, we examined the stress control effect. In muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) seedlings subjected to water withholding, pre-stress foliar spray of ABA improved the maintenance of leaf relative water content by limiting transpirational water loss. This effect was linear to ABA concentration (0.2 to 7.6 mM). Upon rewatering, the ABA-treated seedlings showed faster photosynthetic recovery and greater dry matter accumulation than the untreated seedlings. Second, we examined the height control effect for producing compact transplants. The effectiveness of height control by ABA varied among crops, cultivars, and growth stages: final transplant height was reduced by up to 20% in bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), whereas the benefit of height control was limited by overall growth delay in jalape
SIGNIFICANCE TO THE INDUSTRY
Weed control practices in container production primarily consist of two methods, hand pulling and herbicide applications, but these are not ideal for larger container production. Mulches have been proven to be an effective alternative method of weed control in large containers (Richardson et al., 2008; Bartley et al., 2014). Due to the abundance of fertilizer and water in the nursery environment, degradation rates of available mulch species and types could drastically vary (Altland and Krause, 2014). This research, conducted with the use of litter bags, shows that of five readily available mulch species, pine bark mininuggets, Eastern red cedar, and loblolly pine followed by sweetgum and Chinese privet showed the best weed control potential determined by elemental composition, particle size distribution, and degradation rates.
McClintock systematically described the genus Hydrangea (McClintock, 1957). She included 23 species with a disjunctive distribution in both eastern Asia, eastern North America, and South America. Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ex J.A. Murr.)Ser. is the most popular of the species, and it is one of the most commercially important flowering shrubs in the world.
Hydrangea macrophylla native to Japan and China was cultivated in Japan long before introduction into Europe in the 1800s (McClintock, 1957; Wilson, 1923). For this species, numerous cultivars with showy colorful flowers have been bred since the early 1900s through selection of natural mutants and intraspecific crosses among a limited number of early ancestral taxa.
It goes without saying that trees can be produced at variable levels of quality and it is one of the challenges for consumers in today’s marketplace to be able to pick the winners. Unfortunately, many consumers don’t know what a good quality tree is and that is part of the problem. They rely on the market to produce good quality trees for them but this requires producers to know what a good quality tree is.
The genus is named after Charles Francis Greville and is predominantly Australian with some species from neighbouring countries. Grevilleas are a member of the family Proteaceae. There are three groups; the Banksia Group, the Rosmarinifolia Group, and the Toothbrush Group. From these groups there are also a number of interspecific hybrids.
The plants are a range of prostrate shrubs to trees mostly woody natives. Flowering ornamentals with attractive flowers and foliage and those with nectar attract pollinators and native birds. They make excellent native garden plants from ground covers to shade trees.
They have a range of flowers available to suit everyone’s interest. There are many species and hybrids with different plant forms and a range of flowers available to suit everyone’s interest. There also a few varieties that are commercial timber species.
Slow sand filters (SSF) are an effective technology, capable of developing high-quality water from untreated sources including irrigation runoff. The sand serves as a substrate on which a microorganism community grows. This microbial community can breakdown a wide range of pollutants including plant pathogens. This report reviews results on the removal of Phytophthora spp., Fusarium oxysporum, and tobacco mosaic virus. We were interested in the capacity of these filters to remove different kinds of plant pathogens from captured irrigation run off. Our experiments removed P. capsici after the microbial community was established (2 weeks) and after a simulated 7-day pump failure in previously established SSFs. However, SSFs did not remove F. oxysporum after 7 weeks. In our tests, the SSFs were also able to remove tobacco mosaic virus from inoculated runoff water after 6 to 9 weeks of exposure.
Note: This presentation is not an endorsement or advertisement for the product reviewed herein. It is a qualitative product trial, in real world applications. Readers are welcome to use this paper as a guide to determine whether or not this product would be of use in endeavors.
Several years ago, I was visiting a large Japanese Supermarket in the Northwest suburbs of Chicago. In addition to the various groceries and dry goods from Japan and the United States, this store also has a large book store housed within the building. While I was looking over the various gardening and hardscaping books that dealt with the Japanese style of gardening, I also looked through the magazine section. There I found a number of gardening magazines and the subsequent garden themed ads.
I came across a number of fertilizer product ads, many of which I was familiar with. One product though, was new to me, and I investigated it further. I also had a friend who could translate for me, explain the product and its use, according to the advertisement. The product HB-101®, is widely used in Japan, and the subsequent pages in other publications, seemed to indicate it was a popular, or at least a well marketed product. After doing the Google® and Bing® search ritual, I ordered a bottle of this product for myself (via Ebay®).
To be clear, this is not a fertilizer per se, but a plant extract, which can be used as a foliar agent, used alone, or added to liquid fertilizer regime. I have used it as a standalone product and additive to various horticultural production and maintenance programs. I will relay those findings to you now.
There has been substantial investment in revegetation and restoration of native biodiversity in eastern Australia in recent decades (Close and Davidson, 2003). Incentive programs run through agencies such as Catchment Management Authorities encourage community-based management of natural resources and restoration of native vegetation communities to support biodiversity conservation (Hallett et al., 2014; Local Land Services, 2014). However, more effort is required to achieve restoration at landscape scales. The main limitations to landscape-scale restoration are associated with costs, incompatibility with existing agricultural practices, deficiency of straight financial profits from restoration activities, and inappropriate incentives to change the land management practices (Morrison et al., 2008).
Ilex crenata × I. maximowicziana ‘RutHol1’ Emerald Colonnade® holly PP23,905
Lagerstroemia ‘Miss Francis’
Lagerstroemia ‘Miss Gail’
Lagerstroemia ‘Miss Sandra’
Rhaphiolepis umbellata ‘RutRhaph1’ Summer Moon® Indian hawthorn PP20,730
Ribes sanguineum ‘Oregon Snowflake’
Ruellia simplex ‘Mayan Pink’ (PPP)
Ruellia simplex ‘Mayan Purple’ (U.S. Patent PP24,422)
Ruellia simplex ‘Mayan White’ (U.S. Patent PP25,156)
Weigela ‘Slingco 2’, Maroon SwoonTM weigela (PPAF, CPBRAF)
Weigela ‘Velda’, TuxedoTM weigela (PPAF, CPBRAF)
My talk is about some simple tools or solutions to everyday jobs that we use with our business. These are used in combination with other techniques to grow our crops and are in themselves not complicated. They are easy to make, and may save yourself a bit of time, or ease the task by making it a little easier on yourself and your body.
Marie and I operate our small nursery, The Tree Farm, here in the Waimea Plains in Nelson. We grow mainly deciduous trees and shrubs and a small amount of natives mainly in open ground seed beds. The total area we use is less than a hectare, and our production numbers are small. The range of items we grow is mainly 1- or 2-year-old trees or shrubs, through to topiary and budded or grafted lines.
The aspects that I will discuss are in the broad categories of:
- A tool frame for working over raised seedbeds.
- Transplanting equipment — a simple tool for transplanting plants into plugs.
- Weed control — soil solarization — a simple technique for weed control prior to planting.
Firechalice, Epilobium canum (Greene) P.H. Raven subsp. garrettii (A. Nelson) P.H. Raven, is a small and thinly branched plant that is difficult to germinate from seed. In order to increase the number of selected individuals rapidly, plant tissue culture would be the propagation method of choice. Single-node stem explants from a selected plant were examined for their ability to establish on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or Woody Plant Medium (WPM). Murashige and Skoog medium was found the best salt formulation particularly when supplemented with 4.4 μM benzyladenine (BA). During Stage 2, different plant growth regulators, such as BA, kinetin (Kin), 6-(γ,γ-dimethlyallylamino) purine (2iP), thidiazuron (TDZ) and metatopolin (mT), were used in the media in different concentrations (1.1, 2.2, 4.4 or 8.8 μM). All the cytokinins tested induced the explants to form the most shoots and shoot dry weight when used at 4.4 or 8.8 μM in the medium. A concentration of 8.8 μM BA or mT were most effective for promoting shoot multiplication, with these concentrations inducing means of 13.7 or 14.1 shoots per explant, respectively. All but one cytokinin failed to affect shoot heights at the highest concentrations used, but 4.4 or 8.8 μM TDZ decreased shoot height by at least 54% compared to the control shoots. These results indicated that firechalice shoots established the best on MS medium for Stage 1 and 4.4 or 8.8 μM meta-topolin in the medium resulted in explants forming the most and largest shoots during Stage 2.
There is growing concern about food safety, environmental impact, and efficient energy usage in horticultural production systems. Producing lettuce under different kinds of artificial lighting can be a solution addressing these concerns. Light-emitting diodes (LED) offer the advantages of a narrow light spectrum, low power consumption, and little heat production. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different light sources and crop phenology (growth stage) on the growth of compact ‘Winter Density’ Bibb lettuce in a noncirculating hydroponic system. Lactuca sativa ‘Winter Density’ bibb lettuce seedlings were started in Oasis® cubes. Seedlings were transferred to 5.1-cm net pots and put in 1.9-L containers containing a hydroponic nutrient solution.
Invasive plants are introduced species that can thrive in areas beyond their natural range of dispersal (USDA-NISIC, 2014). They naturalize over large areas, displace native plants, and disrupt natural ecosystems (Ranney, 2004). In Florida, over 1.5 million acres (approximately 600,000 ha) of public conservation lands have been invaded by introduced plant species (Fig. 1), and approximately USA$7 million was spent on management and control of invasive upland plants in 2011 (FFWCC, 2011). In the USA, control costs and production losses due to weeds was estimated at US $30.6 billion per year (Cusack et al., 2009). For example, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), was introduced from Europe to USA in the early 1800s. Purple loosestrife is now found in all continental states except Florida (Blossey, 2002) and accounts for USA$50 million per year in control costs and forage losses. Mexican petunia, Ruellia simplex, (previously also known as R. brittoniana, R. coerulea, R. malacosperma, and R. tweediana), was introduced to Florida from Mexico sometime before 1940 (Hupp et al., 2009) and has now naturalized throughout the state, plus six other southern USA states, Puerto Rico, the USA Virgin Islands and Hawaii (USDA-NRCS, 2014). It is considered as a Category I invasive species in Florida because it is altering native plant communities by displacing native species and changing community structures or ecological functions (FLEPPC, 2013). However, there is no evidence that it is hybridizing with native species (Freyre and Tripp, 2014). Sales of R. simplex ‘Purple Showers’ in Florida were ranked third for herbaceous perennials after pentas and lantana (Rick Brown, Riverview Flower Farms, pers. comm. ), so a breeding program aiming to develop sterile, non-invasive cultivars was established at the University of Florida in 2007 (Freyre et al., 2012a). This species will be described in more detail in this paper.
Rootstock (RS) and scion cultivar selection is the first step in preparing grafted plants. Propagators must consider the relative vigor of seedlings before they are grafted and RSscion compatibility. Ultimately, cultivars are chosen based on their performance on farms. Grafted plants will be made and used more widely and effectively when research-based information on seedling vigor, cultivar compatibility and plant performance is more abundant and accessible.
The hypothesis was that seedling vigor, graft success and/or grafted plant performance (yield) on farms differed among RS and scion cultivars and their combinations.
We tested this hypothesis by documenting: (a) the growth rates of seedlings of 18 RS and 5 scion cultivars, (b) the percentage of healthy grafted plants representing all 90 RSscion combinations, and (c) their performance on farms.
The ‘Fuyu’ Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) tree grafted onto FDR-1 (Fukuoka Dwarfing Rootstock No. 1) showed a semi-dwarfing growth habit in the orchard of Fukuoka Agriculture and Forestry Research Center. After cutting off from the rootstock, the roots sprouted root-suckers. The explants (buds) were collected from the root-suckers and were micropropagated easily. Young trees of ‘Taishu’ Japanese persimmon grafted onto the micropropagated FDR-1 rootstocks showed dwarfing growth (Haranoushiro et al., 2010). Although the cutting propagation of kaki in the mist system was shown to be a cheap and commercial propagation (Tetsumura et al., 2011), the rooting percentages of cuttings of FDR-1 was low in our preliminary experiments. Hence, the objective of this study was to improve rooting of cuttings of FDR-1.
Saunders Brothers is a wholesale nursery located in central Virginia — in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The company began in 1915 as a family farm, growing corn, tobacco, and raising cattle. In 1947, Paul Saunders stuck his first boxwood cuttings as part of a 4H project. In the 1980s as some of Paul’s seven sons were finishing school and returning to the family business, the farm expanded to include an ornamental nursery. Like many folks in the industry, Saunders Brothers grew quickly in the 1990s and through the 2000s. We now grow over 500 different taxa of ornamental plants, 25 different cultivars of boxwoods, and 50 different types of fruit.
The company and the industry suffered during the recession of 2008. Supply outstripped demand and customers were reluctant to buy nursery product, as their expectations for quality increased. At the same time, the costs of our inputs were also increasing. This got us thinking: what can we do to decrease our input costs while also increasing quality?
Common impatiens, Impatiens walleriana, have traditionally been the most popular annual flower used for landscaping. However, impatiens downy mildew (Plasmopara obducens), a pathogen which has recently become virulent against this species, leaves plants defoliated and commercially unviable. Research was started to identify other species, from a genus of over one thousand, which were more resistant to the disease. Screening identified many species with significantly higher resistance, as well as trends in which species were susceptible. Using a range of breeding and propagation tools, we explored different ways to improve common impatiens and integrate the resistance we identified. These included making efforts to better characterize the available germplasm, ploidy manipulation, tissue culture, and interspecific hybridization. Here we describe existing techniques for impatiens improvement, as well as the modifications we have developed for them.
Why is revegetation important?
Since European settlement, land clearing for agriculture has led to the widespread destruction, modification, and fragmentation of Australia
Herbicides fall into three practical categories (groups):
- Non-selective (knockdowns), semi-selective refers to the use of non-selective knockdowns at ultra-low concentrations to control weeds and to avoid off target damage in bushland and nursery situations.
- Selective: selective relates to target species or types of weed control within cereal crops, grass selective, etc.
A considerable body of science in the use of semi-selective herbicide use has been developed by scientists and practitioners in Western Australia to combat particular environmental weeds in quality bushland. The intention has been to find effective weed controls using herbicides without off target damage. This work over many years has lead to the development of very successful techniques which may have application to nursery weed control.
This presentation is our introduction of the use of non-selective knockdown herbicides at ultra-low concentrations for nursery weed control.
Although only a very small number of introduced plant species ultimately become invasive in the United States, those that do can cause a number of harmful effects within our natural communities. Some of these invasive species are woody in nature (trees and shrubs), and these typically have a past or current horticultural connection. Thus, plant propagators of woody plant species need to remain informed of how plants are identified as invasive and which species are beginning to spread in their state. In this paper, I present additional reasons for why plant propagators should care about this issue, what they need to know about how states assess plant species as invasive and newer issues involving cultivars that also provide unique opportunities for plant propagators. Ultimately, plant propagators are encouraged to become better engaged with efforts to assess invasive plants in their own state and to contribute to the dialog about invasive plant issues in the United States.
Although I took the opportunity to officially retire from my professorship in horticulture at a major Midwest university, on-going research projects along with increased participation in the projects at Knight Hollow Nursery, Inc. continued to involve me in research activities encompassing both propagation and plant genetic improvement. These activities have also involved discussions with growers and researchers about how to accomplish various goals. In explaining my ideas, I soon became aware that the concept of managing the juvenile/adult phase of development in crops was often not well understood nor its importance well appreciated. Occasionally I ended up taking time to explain my perspective on developmental change in plants and how this would be a major part of the particular project we were discussing. One result of all this "retirement" activity was to include plant juvenility in progress talks I was asked to present. My discussion here today at IPPS is a continuance of this theme.
Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia) is a $46M (farmgate wholesale value) crop. It is the number one deciduous flowering tree in the nursery trade. In the summer, crapemyrtle is one of the main flowering trees and flowers for 2-3 months. Except for minor problems such as crapemyrtle aphids and powdery mildew, the plant has been generally considered as low maintenance, and used extensively in landscape in the Southeastern United States and other regions. A new, highly unsightly pest, the crapemyrtle bark scale (CMBS), threatens to change the low maintenance reputation of this plant. The crapemyrtle bark scale (Eriococcus lagerstroemia) is a felt scale (Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) identified in 2014 through DNA work and morphological studies. It was first observed in 2004 in Richardson, Texas, a suburb of Dallas.
I started to product rose seedlings about 40 years ago and changed to potted plant production of mini roses 27 years later. Now our company supplies about 30% of the potted mini roses in Japan (about 2,000,000 pots per year Figure 1)).
When I started rose production, I contracted with a major company and supplied rose seedlings. However, because of my physical condition I gave up seedling production. After that I went to Europe in 1989 and inspected the European market and production systems.
Cycads, an endangered group of plants from the world’s tropics and subtropics, have been a mysterious and intriguing plant group to botanists since they were first documented more than 200 years ago. The number of described species continues to grow as subtropical and tropical regions are thoroughly explored; the latest count published in the World List of Cycads (q.v.) is 343. Interest in these plants has grown tremendously over the last 20 years, especially since accurate information has become readily available on the internet. The World List of Cycads, the Cycad Pages, the Cycad Society’s Web site, and a number of other groups readily share information and photographs.
Many species of cycads are endangered, and both plants and seeds can be both difficult and expensive to obtain. The seeds of several species can be difficult to germinate and keep alive. The purpose of this paper is to explain and recommend the "baggiemethod" of germination, a technique that already is well-known in palms. It is not a new method for cycads by any means, but too many people are still unfamiliar with its ease and benefits. The method increases germination percentage and survivability of scarce and expensive seed. The information is especially useful to both the nursery industry and hobbyists; it will ultimately reduce the pressure exerted by poaching on indigenous cycad populations by making plants of the species easier to obtain. Indirectly, greater availability and ease of germination will reduce cost per plant, making cycad species readily available to those who wish to grow them.
Bailey Nurseries in St. Paul roots over 9 million cuttings every year. This includes a portion grown from tissue culture. These micro-cuttings started in January are the Syringa vulgaris hybrids (frequently called the French hybrids lilacs). These micro-cuttings lilacs are shipped to Minnesota from a tissue culture laboratory in Oregon.
Minnesota in winter is not the ideal place to root micro-cuttings in a greenhouse. Cold temperatures, low humidity, and low light conditions make rooting cuttings a real challenge. The current method, which uses small tents to better control the environment, yields variable results, and the cuttings require a lot of labor to maintain.
When we began reading about how European growers were using light-emitting diode (LED) lights to root cuttings, it piqued our interest and several questions came to mind.
EXCHANGE PROGRAM — VISIT TO DENMARK
The 2014 International Exchange Program offered through IPPS Southern Region was hosted in Denmark 20-27 September. This opportunity is afforded to a Southern Region members age 35 and under. Thank you for selecting me to be the 2014 representative. This experience has enriched my career immensely.
This paper is dedicated to three IPPS Southern Region members who have influenced me greatly through active membership: Mr. Bob Black, Mr. Tom Saunders and the late Mr. Wayne Sawyer. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my hosts Mr. Bent Jensen and Ms. Marianne Bachmann Andersen who welcomed me into their homes and made my experience authentic and engaging. The European Region members instantly welcomed me and have continued to serve as knowledge sources and inspiration for me.
Shoots of serviceberry, Amelanchier alnifolia, propagated in tissue culture often fail to form roots readily. In vitro cultured shoots from a selected dwarf plant were examined for their ability to form roots when the basal salt concentration was adjusted or different plant growth regulators were used in the medium. Different concentrations of Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts were used (full, 1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 strength). In addition, the plant growth regulators indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 5, or 10 μM were tested for their ability to induce root formation. The effects of 2 μM benzyladenine (BA) on root formation were tested by combining BA with five NAA concentrations. The 1/8 strength MS treatment induced 38% of the shoots to form roots, whereas roots failed to form on shoots grown on full strength MS medium. The mean number of roots per responding shoot was 1.6. Indole-3-butyric acid and NAA concentrations induced root formation on full strength MS medium. The best rooting was achieved with 10 μM IBA or 10 μM NAA, and the percentage of shoots forming roots was 33% for IBA treated and 67% for NAA treated shoots. The mean number of roots per responding shoot were 6.1 and 2.5 for 10 μM IBA and 10 μM NAA treated shoots, respectively. Shoots treated with BA combined with NAA formed callus at their bases but failed to form roots. This study demonstrated that 1/8 basal salts or 10 μM IBA or NAA
Pine bark for use in the nursery industry is in short supply and at times not completely aged due to timber processing mills moving overseas (Lu et al., 2006). Growers are working to overcome these shortages, high prices, and quality issues by using other products (such as wood) or amending pine bark to stretch their supplies (Worley et al., 2008). Calcined clays can be used as an 8% (by volume) amendment to pine bark to increase buffering and water holding capacity as well as to reduce nutrient leaching in bark based substrates (Owen et al., 2007). Utilizing composted turkey litter as an amendment (at 4, 8, 12, 16% by volume) to pine bark increased available water but decreased air space (Tyler et al., 1993). Both Owens et al. (2007) and Tyler et al. (1993) emphasize the need to evaluate both the physical and chemical properties of an amendment to pine bark before adoption by the containerized plant production industries (nurseries and greenhouses). Therefore, before implementing a new substrate mix into an operation, impacts on plant growth, nutrient availability within the substrate, and changes to fertility programs must be considered. With many alternative substrates available, growers are looking for the most locally available substrate with the least increase in cost, and the ready availability of swine lagoon waste is an attractive option.
Commercial horticulture and agriculture is reliant on the production of new cultivars. In order that these cultivars, and products from them, can be effectively traded their accurate identification and naming in the market place is important. This is particularly important if the cultivar is subject to or associated with intellectual property such as Plant Variety Rights (PVR) or Plant Breeders Rights (PBR).
NAMING FOR BOTANY AND SCIENCE
The naming of cultivars (nomenclature) consists of two components, the first being the botanical or scientific name and the second is the naming of the cultivar itself. Both of these components have respective sets of rules (codes) governing their correct usage. Botanical names follow a binomial (two name) system of nomenclature which provides the genus and species. There can be ranks below the level of species including subspecies, botanical variety, and form, and many ranks above genus, such as family. Collectively these ranks constitute a classification.
Globalization has facilitated the movement of non-native species worldwide through increasing connectedness between isolated ecosystems (Meyerson and Mooney, 2007). Only a small proportion of non-native species introduced to a new range become established, and those species that do become invasive have significant economic and ecological impacts, often resulting in reduced biodiversity and changes in biogeochemical cycling, hydrology, and disturbance regimes (Gordon, 1998; Mack and D
With its large population and Mediterranean climate, California’s water supply is a valuable, but limited, resource that has been made even more apparent during the current multi-year drought. About half of the water consumed in residences is provided as irrigation to landscapes. In the past, plants used in landscapes were chosen only for their ornamental value, but recently more consideration is also given to their water needs. To contribute to information on plant water use, an ongoing study at the University of California, Davis developed irrigation requirements. Plants were installed in a field in the fall of the year and provided ample amounts of water during the first summer. During the second summer, from April to October, four irrigation treatments at 20, 40, 60 and 80% of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) (CIMIS) were provided to the plants. Evaluations of plant size, appearance, and other quality parameters were measured each month. Recommended irrigation rates were developed from the evaluations and reported to funding sources and posted online.
The threat to Australian plant life and biodiversity from existing and potential additional forms of Phytophthora is real and well documented. Some 50% of Western Australia s endangered flora is susceptible to Phytophthora dieback. Whilst there is a range of potential methods of Phytophthora pathogen transfer to valuable conservation areas, a very obvious and likely source is transmission via nursery sourced plant stock. The current nursery accreditation standards and compliance, though better than none, are no longer considered adequate to address the current and prospective threat to Australian flora posed by Phytophthora from nursery stock. The need for nurseries and buyers of plant stock to know and understand their responsibilities to the environment, the nursery industry and each other, requires broad engagement and consultation with the shared intention of moving forward to a higher level of pathogen management and in particular for those supplying stock to valuable conservation areas. This paper will outline the writer views on achieving improvement to nursery Phytophthora protocols for supply to conservation areas.
A number of flavonoids produced by plants impart specific flower and fruit color. The R2R3-Myb transcription factors are key regulatory genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis. Such transcription factors can be potentially used in the development of new plant phenotypes via genetic engineering. In the current study, anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes from Citrus (RUBY), grapevine (VvMybA1), and maize(leaf color-LC) were isolated and placed along with a NPTII gene under the control of a CaMV35S-derived promoter complex. Embryogenic cultures of Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’ were initiated from leaves and floral explants. Somatic embryos at the mid-cotyledonary stage of development were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harboring individual candidate genes to regenerate modified plants. Leaf discs of tobacco cultivar ‘Samsun’ and petunia cultivar ‘Mitcham’ were also transformed to produce modified plants. Regenerated plants were transferred to potting mix, hardened under conditions of high humidity and transferred to a greenhouse. Transient anthocyanin expression from various genes was evidenced by bright red spots on explants after 3-5 d of co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. Stable gene expression was observed in callus and shoot cultures after 4-8 weeks on regeneration medium. Modified ‘Thompson Seedless’ plants were recovered after 16 weeks of co-cultivation while ‘Samson’ and ‘Mitcham’ produced plants in 4-6 weeks. Regenerated plants exhibited varied patterns and intensity of red pigmentation in mature tissues. While some plant lines exhibited uniform red pigmentation on leaves and shoots, other lines exhibited patchy or interveinal accumulation of the anthocyanin pigment. Normal growth and flowering was observed in all plants. Such plants expressing anthocyanin pigments with varied patterns and intensities could be used as breeding lines for the development of ornamental phenotypes with unique coloration.
Gunnar Christensen’s nursery has been in operation for 50 years. It was started on bare field site in 1962 by Gunnar and Nina Christensen and is now run by Henrik and Lotte, the second generation of the family. The nursery covers 17 ha, including 1.5 ha of greenhouses.
The business specialises in production for garden centres in Denmark and Sweden. Annual production is currently more than 1 million plants, including ornamental shrubs, perennials, herbs, fruit trees and soft-fruit plants, and other edible plants such as asparagus and rhubarb. Sizes range from small perennials in 11-cm pots to large specimen shrubs in 25 L pots.
An integrated approach, based on the use of biological control, is taken to crop protection and plant health. Plants are grown "hard" — in other words, fertilisers rates are used that are no higher than those proven in trials to be of direct benefit to the plant and irrigation is regulated to provide a mild drought stress both in the greenhouse and in field production. These approaches combine to produce robust, compact plants that will tolerate conditions during transport and at the garden centre.
Excited, amazed and lucky were just a few good descriptive terms I could have used to describe how I felt when I was informed I was the fortunate recipient of the IPPS exchange scholarship to visit Japan. So on Wednesday 17th September, I boarded my flight, leaving Nelson and my job at Waimea Nurseries behind, while I went off into the big wide world to a country I had no comprehension of.
After arriving in Miyazaki after a series of pleasant flights, I was greeted by Mr. Takuya Tetsumura who took me to my host family. Miyazaki is located in southern Japan in the island of Kyushu it has a warm wet climate and facilitates a diverse range of horticultural activities including mango growing, tea production, and market gardening. All of which are grown on a relatively small scale compared with New Zealand production.
My hosts were the Kusano family of Aya Engei, a nursery producing flowers. The nursery produces pot plants, bulbs, seeds, and cut flowers for the main market. The nursery is well set up with its own tissue culture lab, facilities to store and dry bulbs and seeds and many greenhouses. Various flowers are crossed and offspring that have flowers with favourable characteristics are then reproduced asexually through the tissue culture lab and flowers, seed, and bulbs are sold.
The Chicagoland Grows®, Inc. plant introduction program was founded in 1986 by the Chicago Botanic Garden, The Morton Arboretum, and the nursery consortium Ornamental Growers’ Association of Northern Illinois (OGA). From its inception, the program has been dedicated to the development and introduction of superior landscape plants to the Midwestern USA and comparable climates in the USA, Canada, and Europe. Initially the program focused on the introduction of woody landscape plants, including numerous trees and shrubs from The Morton Arboretum’s breeding research and historic landscape collections and selections from several regional nurseries.
More recently, the program has also introduced several herbaceous perennials developed by regional nurseries and a garden center. In support of Chicagoland Grows, the Chicago Botanic Garden initiated a perennial plant breeding program in 1995, with its first introduction in 2004. Plant propagation for the Chicago Botanic Garden’s breeding program was previously reported (Ault and Thomas, 2013). This report will focus on the breeding efforts of the program.
- The Australian economy is being driven by mining boom time carry over, population/immigration growth and government spending (mostly not sustainable).
- Retail plant volume growth is through Bunnings and Masters chain stores and underpinned by strong housing development.
- Smaller retailers surviving by e-commerce and diversification of products and services.
- Endemic plant demand strong due to swing back to natives and environmental impacts and offsets.
One of the key skills of a nurseryperson is the ability to observe small changes in plant growth and the growing environment, and to understand how these factors influence plant production systems. This training in intuitive observation may explain why some growers comment that the seasons are not what they were. They may perceive that winters are warmer; that flowering and seeding is earlier or that rainfall patterns have changed in their area. Is this anecdotal evidence of increased variability in our climate, or just random musings?
The theme of the IPPS Australian Region conference, "The Times Are Changing", provides an opportunity to be future focused, and arguably the most significant change of our times is our changing climate. If the seasons are changing, then our plants and our livelihood as growers of living products will also change. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the latest scientific research relating to the effects of climate change both globally and locally. It introduces the concept of risk management relating to business planning and discusses how nursery businesses can source local climate projections to plan for climate variability. Finally, I suggest potential opportunities for nursery businesses to engage with climate issues and position themselves firmly as being part of the solution.
This paper reports on plant propagation of select staple and cash crops in the Micronesian region. While discussing various climatic, socio-economic and technical issues that limit agricultural production, the paper emphasizes the feasibility of plant tissue culture techniques for sustainable plant propagation in the region. The findings include development of successful in vitro plant propagation methods and field transfer techniques for regional cultivars of banana, taro, cassava, sweet potato, pineapple, and black pepper. Plant propagation systems developed for crops at the Micronesia Plant Propagation Research Center serve as a foundation for establishing sustainable agriculture practices and attaining food self-sufficiency in Micronesia.
Thielaviopsis basicola infects members of at least 15 plant families to cause black root rot resulting in uneven growth of seedlings and failure of establishment in newly potted nursery stock. There is usually a slow decline in plant vigour, until the plants are put under stress, for example in warm weather or drought. The roots develop dark brown speckled areas where long-lived resting spores (chlamydospores) are formed in the pale-coloured host cells. The fungus also produces abundant colourless endospores which are released outside the root and can be spread in run-off water.
In 2013, UK growers of pot and bedding plants and nursery stock recently became concerned about black root rot and the limited number of plant protection products that are available to them. In particular, Cercobin WG (thiophanate-methyl), can be used as a drench over ornamental plants, but only once per crop, and only if they are in containers in a permanent greenhouse. The UK levy-funded research body, AHDB Horticulture, agreed to fund a series of studies to find alternative treatments. An initial scoping study (Wedgwood, 2013) determined that other chemical active ingredients and biological products might be effective against the pathogen. This led to efficacy experiments (Wedgwood, 2014, 2015).
As commercial propagators all of us are engaged in the business of selling plants. Some of us grow seeded plugs, while others produce cutting-grown liners to sell to other growers and some of us specialize in difficult-to-propagate plant material by means such as tissue culture. The methods we employ are as varied as are the multitude of plants we seek to reproduce. One thing we all have in common, though, is the need for a medium that meets our own specific needs. Usually, our propagation, potting and canning soils are made up of various organic materials that are combined at different ratios to achieve the desired physical properties for a successful outcome. Components such as sphagnum peat moss, fir mulch, perlite, vermiculite, compost, pumice, rice hulls, loam soil, sand, etc. are some products that come to mind. Over the past few years, a new product has been emerging that has caught the attention of many growers.
Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) is considered an aristocrat of native flowering trees of the USA and has a broad range extending through most of the eastern states and westerly through Iowa and south to Texas (Dirr, 2009). This species is one of the most beautiful and important small flowering trees utilized in the nursery and landscape industry. A multitude of species and cultivars of dogwood have been a staple in nursery cultivation. Today, the demand for container-grown dogwoods has increased as the demand for containerized trees has continued to grow over the last 20 years. However, dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers; unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth occur. Reasons for poor dogwood growth during the first growing season are anecdotally related to overwatering, underwatering, over fertilizing, poor root structure, environmental stress, or transplanting delay from the bare root harvest. Flowering dogwoods are considered an understory tree. Producers are successfully growing other native understory species under shade cloth (Phillips et al., 1991), but most producers continue to grow container-grown dogwoods in full sun. Studies have shown that temperatures
At the beginning of March, 2014, I was given access to some rather old grape vines that were going to be removed for road work on Highway 152 just west of Gilroy, California. After digging down for 2 ft. before finding any roots at all, I realized I would not be able to dig and move them by hand. I consulted with a friend who had been creating bonsai for many years and, with his advice, I decided to try rooting the picturesque growth at the tips of the vines that had been created by 40 years of pruning for wine grape production.
Oaks (Quercus L.) are globally iconic trees, prized economically, ecologically, and aesthetically. However, despite their importance, many species of Quercus are under threat from a wide range of global issues (Oldfield and Eastwood, 2007). One method of saving threatened oak species is micropropagation using young, newly flushed shoots collected immediately after emergence in the spring (Kramer and Pence, 2012). This is a narrow and somewhat unpredictable time window for obtaining explants. However, forcing bud break of cuttings can increase the time range to collect young shoot explants and allow for shoot development in a controlled, clean environment (Vieitez et al., 1994). The objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), a cytokinin (hormone that promotes cell division), on bud break in 12 Quercus species.
In honor of the passing of Yogi Berra this week I thought I would begin my talk by quoting a few "Yogism ’s" that are appropriate for this talk.
- "It’s tough to make predictions, especially about the future"
- "You can observe a lot just by watching"
- "If you don’t know where you are going, you might end up somewhere else"
All of the above quotes are relevant to understanding and embracing business in general, but can especially be applied to LEAN culture. My favorite is: "You can observe a lot just by watching." LEAN is a process that begins with observation.
I want to remind everyone that I was here last year and discussed how North Creek is using the Working Smarter Training Challenge™ to teach LEAN culture in our workplace. Similar to LEAN, the Working Smarter program teaches easy ways to take action that drive waste out of our processes. This enables our business to score a series of wins while we as individuals get to be rewarded like champions. Eventually everyone in the company develops the culture of seeking continuous "wins" or continuous improvement. These actions resulted in the reduction of lost time, decreasing unnecessary costs, and ultimately allowing us to find better ways to service our customers.
Grafting vegetable plants onto specific rootstocks which are resistant to soilborne diseases is a unique horticultural technology attracting interest among intensive vegetable crop producers as well as organic growers. In many parts of the world including the USA grafting represents the only feasible measure to control a diversity of problems such as soilborne disease and saline soil conditions. Cucurbit plants, particularly watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), are grafted using the onecotyledon method. The optimal stage of growth for grafting watermelon is the 1 to 2 true-leaf stage for the scion and the 1 true leaf stage for the rootstock. A 9-day healing regimen was found to be successful for watermelon in western Washington conditions and had 90% survival for grafted watermelon transplants. Our current research studies are investigating how to further optimize the success rate for grafting watermelon transplants, such as applying antitranspirants to reduce water loss and utilizing the splice grafting method to eliminate rootstock regrowth. Additionally we are testing grafted plants to control verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae in Washington.
Grafting as a cultural practice for controlling soilborne diseases and improving abiotic stress tolerance has been widely used in the production of solanaceous and cucurbits crops in many areas of Asia and Europe. Interest in vegetable grafting has been growing in the United States in recent years. By physically conjoining a plant with desirable fruit characteristics (called a scion) onto another plant with specific disease resistance or stress tolerance (called a rootstock), grafted plants combine the beneficial characteristics of both the rootstock and scion cultivars. The major obstacle of wide adoption of this technique in the United States is the high cost of grafted transplants. The production cost can be partially reduced by increasing efficiency of grafting techniques. Three methods are commonly used in melon grafting, i.e., hole insertion, splice grafting, and tongue-approach grafting methods. The advantage of hole-insertion method is that it does not need grafting clips, but it has a narrow window regarding relative plant sizes of rootstock and scion. Splice grafting is easier to conduct compared with hole-insertion and tongue-approach methods, and it has less stringent requirement for the growth stage of rootstock and scion. Tongue approach method may require more greenhouse space, while it often helps achieve a good graft survival rate. Plants grafted with hole-insertion and splice grafting methods require high relative humidity conditions for post-graft healing. Rootstock regrowth (sucker) can be completely eliminated by using tongue-approach method. To facilitate mechanical grafting, as well as long-distance shipping of grafted transplants, root excision at different grafting stages has been practiced. The diverse procedures of melon grafting techniques are presented in the project.
Today, labor is the most premium product and there are four factors that affect the cost of labor:
Research on the effects of rare sugars in plant tissue culture is limited (Fukai and Saruta, 2004). In this study, effects of rare sugars on growth and development in Phalaenopsis (syn. Doritaenopsis) tissue culture were examined.
I don’t even think I’m particularly qualified to speak on the future. In fact I don’t know any more or probably less for that matter, than some of the folk who make a partial living talking about these things. However, like everyone I do have a perspective though; — that of a small producer.
We know that there is of course a consequence to predicting future paths and that is, it is to some extent self fulfilling. It shapes the future just as the choices we make shape the future. So if an expert says this is how plants will be sold in the future it is very easy for the rest of us to decide we need to embrace the future and as such we create an impetus in that direction.
- Aesculus glabra ‘J.N. Select’, Early Glow™ Ohio buckeye
- Allium ‘Windy City’ PPAF
- Cephalanthus occidentalis Magical® ‘Moonlight’ buttonbush
- Festuca ‘Cool as Ice’ PPAF
- Geum ‘Citronge’ PPAF
- Juniperus chinensis ‘J.N. Select Blue’, Star Power™ Chinese juniper
- Juniperus virginiana ‘J.N. Select Green’, Emerald Feather™ eastern redcedar
- Penstemon calycosus
- Phlox ‘Violet Pinwheels’ PP#25,884
- Phlox × procumbens ‘Pink Profusion’ PP#25,883
- Sedum ellacombianum ‘Cutting Edge’ PPAF
- Spiraea fritschiana ‘J.N. Select A’, Pink-a-licious™ Fritsch spirea
- Syringa reticulata subsp. pekinensis, ‘WFH2’, Great Wall™ Peking tree lilac
- Tradescantia ‘Tough Love’ PP#25,988
Clonal asexual propagation by cuttings is an efficient technique for capturing genetic gain in forestry. However, selected clones (selected for growth, wood properties and stem form) often prove to be difficult to root, thereby limiting the rate of deployment for further field testing and subsequent commercialization. This constraint will also delay the time taken for new clones to be identified. It is thus imperative that a propagation system runs efficiently and economically to realize genetic gain. It is widely hypothesized that rooting ability of clones is under genetic control. Although true for some clones, this study showed that the sand bed minihedge system resulted in improved rooting percentages through rejuvenation, better nutrition and improved climatic control of hedges. Additional benefits of this system included a more robust root system, faster growth and improved plant quality of minicuttings, which are favourable traits to reduce transplant stress when planted in-field.
Most commercial watermelon producers purchase transplants from commercial greenhouse plant propagators. This study evaluated the feasibility of producing greenhouse, seedless-watermelon transplants, both non-grafted and grafted, as well as using grafted transplants to produce seedless watermelon in Washington State. Results suggest that the production of grafted watermelon transplants can be economically feasible for commercial greenhouse propagators if the transplants can be sold at more than $0.20 per plant.